Where the child is born out of wedlock, and in the absence of paternal acknowledgement, paternity affiliation may be determined by the court. Where a child is born to a married woman or the child’s paternity has been ascertained on the basis of an application acknowledging the child’s paternity,  paternity affiliation is possible only after a successful contesting of the data concerning the child’s father contained in the record of the child’s birth. The paternity of a dead person may be ascertained only if the person had offspring. Where a child is born out of wedlock or the data on the father contained in the record of the child’s birth have been successfully contested , an action for the paternity affiliation may be filed by the man considering himself the father of the child. The child and the child’s mother shall act as defendants in such an action. If a child’s father refuses to acknowledge his paternity by an application for the approval of his acknowledgement of the child’s paternity or if a child’s father is dead, the action for paternity affiliation may be filed by the child’s mother or the child after having attained full active capacity or the child’s guardian or curator or the state institution for the protection of the child’s rights or the descendants of a child who is dead.

Having determined a child’s paternity, the court shall send its res judicata judgement to the Registrar’s Office that has registered the child’s birth within three business days. If the defendant refuses expert examination, the court having regard to the circumstances of the case may treat such a refusal as proof of the defendant’s paternity of the child.